Plums are tasty fruits that grow on trees and belong to the Prunus genus. Plums are classified as drupes because they have a central stone surrounded by sweet, soft, or sour flesh. A single plum tree may produce over 100 lbs. (45 kg) of medium-sized fruits, and there are around 40 types of plums.
Plums are a sort of stone fruit that comes in a variety of shapes, including oval and round. They can have skin that is black, purple, red, or yellow in color. Plum flesh is delicate and juicy on the inside, and it is usually amber in color. Prunes are made from sweet black plums that have been dried. The dusty-white waxy coating on mature plum fruits gives them a pale grey or bluish-green appearance.
A single plum can range in size from 0.7″ to 2.7″ (2–7 cm) depending on the variety. Below, we have discussed some varieties of plums.
Black plums have a mild to sweet flavor and vary in color from brilliant red to deep purple. Because they don’t fall apart when baked or cooked, they’re commonly utilized in recipes like plum tarts. This gives the meal a more finished appearance and texture.
What’s more amazing is that when you use black plums in your recipes, the black skin spreads out to provide a lovely purple color across the meal. Japanese black plums are further split into the following categories:
Black Ruby is a reddish-brown plum with light yellow flesh that is fairly round. Unlike other plum kinds, black ruby has a freestone center, which means the stone readily separates from the flesh. Other types of Japanese plums, on the other hand, are “clingstone,” meaning the flesh firmly adheres to the pit.
According to the website of Clemson University Horticulture, Black Ruby trees can readily handle humid climates, which is why they are cultivated in wet parts in southern and Mediterranean zones.
Friar is a variety of Japanese black plum with a softer amber skin tone. Friars have a spherical form and range in color from dark violet to vivid black.
This plum from the end of the season is juicy, sweet, and has a little pit. Friar plums require a long time to ripen, with ripeness occurring three weeks after Black Ruby.
Black Beauty is a deep purple color that comes in sizes ranging from medium to full large. When hard and tender, this stone fruit is extremely juicy. Avoid plums that are small, hard, or have strange markings on them.
Keeping Black Beauty in a paper bag and letting it mature at room temperature is a simple and easy technique of ripening it. The best time to buy Black Beauty at the grocery store is in the middle of the season.
This is a relatively new plum with a bluish-black appearance and a delectable flavor. These fruits range in size from medium to large, with moist, crimson flesh.
Black Splendor, unlike Black Beauty and Friar, is an early-season plum that can be harvested between June 5 and June 20.
Damascene, a fleshy fruit containing a solitary seed, is one of the plum species found in the European plum family. The damsons are grown in the United Kingdom, but the insititia cultivars are grown throughout Europe.
Damson plum plants grow little fruits with deep dark blue skin. Large stones with highly delicious flesh may be included in the fruits. It also has a strong and sour flavor, making it unsuitable for raw consumption due to the acidity of the flesh.
The plum fruits of damson cultivars can be cooked and consumed at any time of day. You can serve it as a dessert by sprinkling whipped cream over the cooked fruits.
The fibers in the stewed plums are especially good for digestive health. It should also strengthen the immune system and provide a variety of other health benefits, including preventing heart disease, lowering bad cholesterol, increasing energy, lowering the chance of some malignancies, and much more.
Damson plums are harvested from August to October and are available in a variety of cultivar subspecies, including Prunus domestica insititia.
Elephant Heart Plum
The elephant heart plum is a huge, heart-shaped stone fruit, as its name suggests. Sweet juicy red meat with a firm firmness is covered by purple to dark red speckled skin. This plum type is classed as a Japanese plum, and when eaten fresh, it tastes wonderful. Some claim the meat is nearly like drinking juice because it is extremely soft and juicy.
The sweetness and sharpness of these delicious plums are well balanced. The red flesh is tangy and delicious, while the skin has a berry flavor. Between September and October, elephant heart plums are ready for picking.
Small and spherical, the plums have a delightful honey-sweet flavor. The firm texture of the delicious flesh is typical of many European plums. The green skin of the greengage plum might show streaks of crimson flushing or yellow depending on the cultivar. Greengage plums are widely regarded as the best plums for desserts.
Greengage plum trees bloom in the spring and produce huge yields by late summer and at the start of fall. The fruits are at their sweetest during this season. The skin of this popular European plum clings to the pit, making it a clingstone plum.
Satsuma Plum (Blood Plum)
Satsuma plums are a medium to tiny red round plum species native to Japan. This plum variety’s maroon skins are hard and tough, with a sour flavor. The rich red-colored flesh, on the other hand, is quite delicious, which balances out the bitterness of the skin.
The satsuma plum, despite its name, has nothing to do with the citrus fruit. The intense crimson color of the skin and flesh is referred to as blood plum. Satsuma plums are a semi-clingstone type, which means that the flesh clings to the stone only partially. Japanese red plums are generally larger than European red plums.
Mirabelle plums have beautiful yellow-orangey skins that resemble apricots. The tasty amber flesh and a stone at the center are revealed when the delicate skin is cut open. Because of their high sugar content, these spherical fruits are ideal for jellies, jams, and baked items.
Outside of France, these plum trees are quite rare. Due to the soft flesh of the fruit, it does not transport well; hence, these plums are usually only offered in France. If you want to grow some of the sweetest plums available, you can plant Mirabelle plum trees in your garden.
Despite the fact that plucots and pluots are frequently confused, they are actually distinct varieties of plums. Plucots are an early plum-apricot hybrid, whereas pluot has plum characteristics rather than apricot characteristics. Plucots have a yellowish-green surface and a bright pink to crimson interior in general.
They are oval in shape and have lemony green-yellow skin with pronounced reddish-blue spots, unlike Japanese plums. Because they are firm and crisp, they are frequently used in mint salsa recipes. Plucots can also be used to make jam, chutney, plum crumbles, and other delectable recipes.
Late-season plums ripen in late July and August. They have solid and crisp flesh when fully matured and may be easily transported to foreign nations without being harmed.
Pluots are a pleasant hybrid fruit with reddish-brown skin and yellowish flesh. Dinosaur Egg, Flavor Grenade, Dapple Dandy, and Flavorglo are just a few of the pluot variants available at a market.
To get the most out of pluots, choose firm, fragrant plums with a bright appearance. If pluots are mushy or soft, they haven’t fully matured. Pluots can last three days on the counter and one week in the refrigerator, just like any other plum.
Yellow plums, often known as lemon plums, are a smaller, rounder plum variety with yellow peel and meat. These fruits have a crisp, firm texture and are juicy, providing the consumer with the highest level of plumpness. Late summer to early fall is the best time to gather these delectable fruits.
Yellow plums are used to make jams, pies, preserves, juices, juices, and plum brandy, among other things. According to studies, 90% of commercially grown yellow plums are used to make jam or fruit brandy. Yellow plums are finest eaten right after they’ve been picked. Otherwise, the fruit might lose its original flavor and taste less vibrant than it should.
Red plums, which have a sweet-tart flavor, can help you get more minerals and vitamins while also providing you with a healthy dosage of antioxidants.
Red plums are also an excellent weight-loss option. Each plum is thought to provide a gram of fiber, half a gram of protein, 6.5 grams of sugar, 30 calories, and no fat or cholesterol. Red plums not only help you lose weight, but they also benefit your heart. They include phenolic chemicals that keep LDL cholesterol from clotting your system, lowering your risk of heart attack or stroke.
Red plums have a pale red to dark purple skin hue. The flesh, like the skin, varies in color, with some being red and others being yellow in tone. According to a study published in the Journal of HortScience in 2004, red plums with yellow meat are more nutrient-depleted than those with red flesh.
This is a fresh European-style plum type that makes excellent prunes when dried. It’s an oblong stone fruit with the shape of a tiny pear and the size of a giant walnut.
It has smoky and dark skin with purple and light blue colors, and dark amber flesh. The tree is ready to harvest in late summer, and its Improved French prune variant is highly popular in the United States. When it’s soft, it’s delectably sweet, and when it’s hard, it’s delectably sour
Because they resemble small, spherical, red, or yellow cherries, these are sometimes known as cherry plums. They come in a variety of cultivars and have a sweet to sour flavor.
If you obtain them fresh, they’re tasty, but they’re also great for baking and making jelly. These trees are commonly grown as attractive fruit trees in backyard farms.
The plant develops to the size of shrubs in a small garden, while the fruit is small and round. This cultivar is particularly well-known for being one of the first trees to bloom in the spring.
Italian Prune Plum
The Italian prune is a huge, oblong, egg-shaped plum with a powdery covering on purple-blue skin, similar to the French plum. Green-amber juicy flesh becomes a bright fuchsia color when cooked in this freestone plum cultivar. The sweetness of the plum tree’s fruit increases as it ripens.
Although fresh Italian prune plums are edible, the majority of the harvest is dried to make prunes.
Dark-skinned Moyer plums are sometimes sold as Italian or French prunes.
Owen’ T’ Plum
When it comes to plums, the ‘Owen T’ cultivar is regarded to be the largest. A single plum can weigh up to 230 grams and be 3″ (7.5 cm) in diameter. The skins of these huge plums are bluish-dark purple, and the tasty meat has a pale golden tint. In the middle of the season, ‘Owen T’ plums are typically ready to eat.
John ‘W’ Plum
The ‘John W’ cultivar is another sort of huge dark-skinned plum. The size of this plum is similar to that of the ‘Owen T’ type. The only difference between these two is the color of their skin and flesh. The skin of the ‘John W’ plum variety is a rich red-purple tint, while the flesh is a deep orange color. The season for these plums is later than for ‘Owen T’ plums.
There are some of the most common types of plums that you will come across when you search the market for plums.